Generator Ratings and the Implications for Data Centers
Understanding how generator ratings are determined is simple, but there is a long list of variables to consider. We’ll review the basic fundamentals of generator ratings. But first we’ll look at a recent industry discussion about specific ratings for generators in data centers and examine what’s necessary for these facilities.
Selecting between a 3-pole and 4-pole ATS
The grounding of an emergency system and its ground-fault protection are determining factors in choosing a 3-pole or 4-pole transfer switch. On systems using a 3-pole ATS, the neutral is continuous through the whole system. This is a solid neutral, bonded to ground at the utility service entrance. On systems using a 4-pole ATS, each source’s neutral is bonded to ground at its source. To ensure you’re specifying the correct type, it is important to understand grounding and ground fault protection.
Digital Communications in Electrical Generation Systems
Electrical generation systems need to communicate with peripheral devices, other generation systems, building management systems and remote monitors. A number of technologies are used to enable communication between electrical generation systems and other equipment. If you’re involved in specifying, installing or maintaining electrical generation systems, you’ll find it helpful to understand how these communication technologies work to meet your needs and the requirements of the building.
Understanding Seismic Isolation and IBC Certification
It's important for standby power systems to function after natural events such as hurricanes and seismic events such as earthquakes. Standby power systems located in regions where earthquakes are possible should be International Building Code (IBC)-certified to function properly after a seismic event. While the IBC is not a federal government mandate, its adoption has been encouraged — and in some cases required — to ensure funding coverage by the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA).
Understanding IBC Wind Load Requirements for Generating Systems
Published and updated every three years by the International Code Council, the International Building Code (IBC) not only deals with life-safety and fire protection regulations for building and structures, it also addresses wind load design requirements for both buildings and components attached to them. When specifications call for IBC wind rated products, it is necessary to verify the product has been tested or analyzed for IBC compliance. To familiarize building owners and power system specifiers with the wind load compliance provisions of the IBC with respect to power system equipment, Kohler Power Systems has created this instructional white paper focused on what goes into qualifying for IBC wind load certification. Specific topics include the parameters that determine wind load, general wind load installation notes, as well as installation and mounting considerations, and more.
Sizing Gensets for Motor Starting
The dynamic interactions of motors and gensets make manual genset sizing difficult, if not impossible. Not only is sizing an application with large motors complex, but different genset manufacturers have different approaches for specifying a standby power system that will function reliably. This eight-page paper aims to supply power system specifiers with a background to select the most cost-effective and reliable genset for motor-starting applications.
How to Benefit From Multiple Paralleled Generators in Traditional Single-Generator Standby Applications
Explore the options available in standby and emergency power applications to share the total load among multiple, smaller gensets, and the benefits achieved. When connected in parallel, a multiple genset installation can maximize system reliability, availability, fuel economy and operational flexibility.
Understanding the requirements for IBC Seismic-Compliant Systems
Critical-needs facilities are required to have standby power systems that can survive seismic events and still continue to operate. These requirements differ depending on geography, local soil conditions and even where a power system is located within a building.